Pseudonym: Lavell, Edward P.
10/1/58 cable from Chief of Station, the Hague to C/WE: "(Hede Massing) arrived with (Edward P. Lavell/true name Paul Gaynor) from Frankfurt on schedule and contacted Fagg and Meppiel who arranged for a meeting with SYMPATHIZER-50 on 25 September and a meeting with SYMPATHIZER-11 on 26 September."
Jeffrey Kaye and H.P. Albarelli, Jr., Cries From the Past: Torture's Ugly Echoes. Truthout, 2010. http://truth-out.org/archive/component/k2/item/89725:cries-from-the-past-tortures-ugly-echoes
"The code name 'ARTICHOKE' was selected with sardonic humor from the street appendage given to New York City gangster Ciro Terranova, who was referred to as 'the Artichoke King'...(the project was) overseen by the Agency's Security Research Staff, headed by Paul F. Gaynor, a former Army Brigadier General, who had extensive experience in wartime interrogations...(a) 1954 Artichoke conference, attended by Frank Olson's Fort Detrich superior, Col. Vincent Ruwet (revealed)... the ultimate goal of the group which is the running of selected foreign nationals back into Europe for specific work for this Agency...numerous ARTICHOKE operational reports and records (were) filed by both the CIA and army from 1954 through to at least 1970.