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Pseudonym: Calligeris, John H.

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John H. Calligeris was a pseudonym for Carlos Castillo Armas. Castillo Armas was President of the Guatemalan Junta from July 8, 1954, and President of Guatemala from September 2, 1954 to July 26, 1957.
Castillo Armas also had the cryptonyms of PANCHO and RUFUS.

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954: Guatemala: Current Section: Persons and Pseudonyms

Page XIX: "Persons and Pseudonyms...Calligeris, John H., pseudonym for Carlos Castillo Armas. Castillo Armas, Colonel Carlos, President of the Guatemalan Junta from July 8, 1954; President of Guatemala September 2, 1954-July 26, 1957..."

National Security Archive, "CIA and Assassinations: The Guatemala 1954, Documents" - Edited by Kate Doyle and Peter Kornbluh: https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/

1952-1954: "These documents, including an instructional guide on assassination found among the training files of the CIA's covert "Operation PBSUCCESS," were among several hundred records released by the Agency on May 23, 1997 on its involvement in the infamous 1954 coup in Guatemala. After years of answering Freedom of Information Act requests with its standard "we can neither confirm nor deny that such records exist," the CIA has finally declassified some 1400 pages of over 100,000 estimated to be in its secret archives on the Guatemalan destabilization program. (The Agency's press release stated that more records would be released before the end of the year.) An excerpt from the assassination manual appears on the Op-Ed page of The New York Times on Saturday, May 31, 1997...The first CIA effort to overthrow the Guatemalan president--a CIA collaboration with Nicaraguan dictator Anastacio Somoza to support a disgruntled general named Carlos Castillo Armas and codenamed Operation PBFORTUNE--was authorized by President Truman in 1952...also see https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/docs/doc04.pdf - a version of the assassination lists compiled by the CIA and Carlos Castillo Armas (code-named "Calligeris") in the course of preparing for the 1954 coup."


03/02/54: Cable from Guatemala City to Director: Slugline PBSUCCESS RYBAT: "1. ESSENCE requests transmittal following message to Calligeris: From Puerto Barrios area. Napoleon Sierra, Lico Castro and unidentified field person referred to as 'G' involved in plotting against govt with military men Rafael Millares, Jose Luis Gonzalez and Emilio Bolanos. All are agreed on immediate action. Request Calligeris halt impending action if they are his men or try to discourage rash armed movement if not his men. 2. ESSENCE did not identify his source nor elaborate to Razmara and we have no confirmation. 3. Request LINCOLN guidance in manner of handling such requests by ESSENCE. Servicing such requests deemed advisable to strengthen Razmara's relationship to ESSENCE."


03/29/54: Cable from Guatemala to Director: Slugline PBSUCCESS RYBAT: "ESCOBILLA informed Razmara 27 March opposition strength seriously threatened by new government pressure. Claims 150 oppositionists in jail. Unless action comes soon backbone of resistance will be broken because key persons will be jailed or exiled. Claims army officers sympathetic to movement have performed assigned tasks that may be revealed if action delayed. Claims some officers threatening withdraw from movement, others believe themselves dangerously exposed by their actions in behalf of movement and betrayed by Calligeris failure to act."

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954: Guatemala: Current Section: 148. 5/14/54-Memorandum for the Record

5/14/54: Memorandum for the Record: "Calligeris, initially an unknown, undistinguished Lt. Colonel in the Guatemalan army, became involved in the Junta when REDACTED the military leader of the anti-Communist Guatemalan forces in exile...prior to this time Calligeris' most overt act against the regime had been an abortive revolutionary movement which was triggered by the assassination of Col. Arana, a close friend of Calligeris. Calligeris' coup against the government became known before any action could be taken and resulted in his imprisonment. His subsequent 'heroic' escape from prison was arranged entirely REDACTED...the undersigned believes that Calligeris has the mentality and sufficient personal ambition to aspire to the job of being the new Guatemalan strongman...He should be confronted as soon as possible, with the outline of the temporary government which will outline his limited authority."


05/29/54: Cable from Withheld to Director: Slugline RYBAT PBSUCCESS: FROM ONTRICH: "1. Calligeris informed from Venezuela by Calderon Guatdia all is well that country. Number two man from Venezuela will arrive MANA 2 June for conference with Calligeris to lay on deal. 2. Have place ready to Jack Calligeris up 0500 hours local 2 June at (REDACTION) to transport him MANA. Will make arrangements for small plane landings (REDACTION) upon (REDACTION) return. Will advise. 3. Venezuelan staying Grand Hotel MANA under name Pedro Astrada (also RCVD Estrada)."


06/11/54: Cable from Guatemala City to Director: Slugline RYBAT PBSUCCESS: "1. Govt apparently using curtailment civil liberties and news blackout to cover nation wide search, seizure and suppression of opposition. Following is summary of Razmara 10 June report from ESSENCE and ESSENCE-1. A. Many Calligeris partisans in capital with reports, seeking guidance, funds, looking for SEMANTIC or his replacement. B. ESSENCE one of principal objects police search. (REDACTION) sole remaining ESSENCE CEUA contact arrested (REDACTION) June, talked freely before release (REDACTION) June. Last saw ESSENCE 8 June and presumably reported his presence in GUAT to police. C. Black member (REDACTION) (as RCVD) arrested, can blow ESSENCE organization in BOND (Puerto Barrios), Caesar (Quetzaltenango), Eddie (El Quiche). Can also blow ESSENCE-1 who was previously clean and principal free agent ESSENCE complex. D. ESSENCE home searched yesterday, also homes of (REDACTION) 'and others.' E. ESSENCE refugees from provinces report begin of terror, insist action must come soon or opposition in provinces will be destroyed. Calligeris sympathizers desperate, losing faith, may set off isolated uprisings all over country to detriment of awaited united move. 2. Do not expect fulfilment any assigned KUGOWN (Psychological and Paramilitary Staff) tasks (eg HULA 912, 751). Devoting all efforts to protection remaining...assets. If necessary will advise ESSENCE seek political asylum and send Razmara adjoining country. Will keep you advised. 3. If resumption internal KUGOWN activities near future determined impossible believe cause not seriously impaired since basic objectives long since accomplished, sides chosen, little prospect new conversions either way, action itself will inspire action and rally PBSUCCESS partisans..." For BOND, Caesar, Eddie cryptonyms: https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=145047#relPageId=15&tab=page

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Bill Simpich • MFF

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