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Cryptonym: JMHARP

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Some of these dissidents were held as "prisoners" after a revolt within the Guatemalan Army during November 1960. Another memo describes them as CRC expeditionary force "detainees" - anti-Castro exiles at foreign bases that could not join the Bay of Pigs invasion for military disciplinary reasons. These detainees broke into the AMOT and CRC intelligence files in the wake of the Bay of Pigs.
This cryptonym looks like it was designed to single out all anti-Castro activists who were harping about the CRC's approach- which was designed by the CIA. Add 104-10267-10052, 4/28/61, more about the break-in.

Official History of the Bay of Pigs Operation, Volume II: Participation in the Conduct of Foreign Policy Current Section: F. MInor Skirmishes: Inter- and Intra-Agency

There was a November 1960 revolt in Guatemala led by dissident Army officers. Although there was no evidence that it was Castro-led, "the Political and Psychological Warfare unit of WH/4 was to suggest that if legitimate evidence was not found to implicate Castro, that such evidence be manufactured..."

William Blum, Killing Hope, p. 147 (Common Courage Press, 2004)

"On the 13th of (November, 1960), five days after Kennedy's victory, Guatemalan military personnel broke out in armed rebellion against the government of Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes, seizing two military bases and the port city of Puerto Barrrios...The officers commanded as many as 3,000 troops, a significant percentage of the armed forces...in Guatemala...the CIA decided upon a solution...American and Cuban pilots took off from their training ground and bombed and strafed reel headquarters outside Guatemala City, and bombed the town and airfield of Puerto Barrios. Caught completely by surprise, and defenseless against this superior force, the rebels' insurrection collapsed...President Ydigoras had asked Washington for the naval and air support, and had even instructed the Guatemalan Ambassador in Washington to 'get in touch immediately with (Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs) Thomas Mann to coordinate your action.'"

Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (1979), pp. 57-59.

Early 1961: At Camp Trax in Guatemala, "'Colonel Frank' - probably Lt. Col. Frank Egan, in command of all indigenous Brigade training - see https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=9985&relPageId=155 - and the US command of thirty-eight advisers (military men posing as civilians) lorded it over the Brigade from their hilltop residence 'like mandarins over a Chinese province'...there was a mutiny. Some 230 men 'resigned', including all of the Second and Third Battalions. Whereupon San Roman resigned to join up as an ordinary soldier...With Colonel Frank away, his superior, another American officer named 'Bernie' and known as 'Sitting Bull' (note: identified as Carl Jenkins by Bradley Ayers) because of his squat appearance, assembled the Brigade in formation and announced from a wooden platform: 'I am boss here, and the commander of the Brigade is still Pepe San Ramon...(Son of the former Cuban defense minister Rodolfo) Nodal ..(had) been elected one of the five leaders of the (one hundred) dissidents...Nodal found himself under arrest in tents normally occupied by the Brigade's tank units. He was one of twenty men who were considered the principal troublemakers and he was (apprehended)...along with fellow dissidents, he was spirited by seaplane and canoe to a camp in the Peten, a mountainous, almost inaccessible jungle in northernmost Guatemala. It was guarded by four Americans and twenty-five Guatemalans. The prisoners were issued thin slippers to discourage escapes. Nobody tried to get away. Two weeks after the invasion, Nodal was flown to Miami and released. He phoned his family at 3 am. They did not know he was alive."


Events of January 30-31, 1961: Based on an interview with former BoP prisoner Edgardo Antonio Buttari, dated 12/23/62: "Colonel (FNU) Vallejo (note: probably Napoleon Valeriano), an American officer of Philippine extraction, was the head of the American personnel assigned to (JMTRAX, the Trax base in Guatelmala)...Late in November, 1960, Col. Vallejo left and was replaced by an American known to me as "Frank"...Frank arrived with a group of others among whom I recall "Burnie"/Carl Jenkins, "Gordon", Pat, and one known as "C. B."..."Frank" reorganized the whole setup. He dissolved the teams and organized the Brigade 2506. On 30 January 1961, Manuel Villafana/LITAINT-1, head of the Cuban Air Force in exile attached to the Brigade 2506, visited Trax Base. Villafana (circulated a letter to the FRD) demanding, in the name of the members of Brigade 2506, to remove the general staff of the Directorate, FRD, and reinstate Jaime Vanosa Carela as Navy chief...Villafana had the approval of the Brigade headquarters, but the opposition of the majority of the Brigade members. We considered this an act of insubordination to the Chief of the Joint Staff and to the civil authorities of the FRD. This incident caused a mass disturbance within Trax Base...the 2nd and 3rd infantry battalions refused to continue training until FRD representatives arrived at Trax Base...the principal American instruction, "Burnie"...on 31 January 1961...told us that Jose Perez San Roman was to be reinstated as supreme head of the Brigade...all Brigade members left the platform area and returned to their barracks. Villafana and San Roman remained alone...Some men refused to continue training until an acceptable solution was reached. About 14 of these men were sent under arrest to Peten plains where they were fed by airdrops...the 2nd and 3rd infantry battalions were combined and reorganized..."

176-10033-10145: CIA Reorganization

Feb. 1961: Arthur Schlesinger memo. "Such actions as locking up the Revolutionary Council, such operations as Operation 40 in Miami where CIA agents reportedly trained Cubans in methods of torture, such episodes as the detention and third degree reportedly administered to Dr. Rodolfo Nodal Tarafa and 16 other Democratic Cubans this February - all these suggest that things go on under CIA sponsorship with which CIA in Washington is only dimly acquainted."

1993.08.09.17:07:29:370007: UNSANITIZED CIA FILE OF WILLIAM PAWLEY.

3/1/61 notes of William Pawley re conversation with ex-Air Force officer Gustavo Alfonso, first lieutenant during Machado regime. Contacted by 11 deserters (all named) concerned that the young officers running the camps are undisciplined. Jailed men: Francisco Chavez, Rodolfo Barthelemey, Humberto Olivera, Epifanio Gonzalez, Rodolfo Nodal, Omar Castaneda, Jose A. More, Antonio Maza, (Ricardo) Martinez de la Cruz, jailed due to their unwillingness to accept the coup by Villafana and San Roman against the General Staff. Also see 104-10233-10415: Oscar Castanedas was one of the 18 imprisoned for internal rebellion in Guatemala during the training period - he worked closely with Julio Garceran. Their group was the "17th of April" and was opposed to the CRC.


3/28/61 memo from C/WH/4/PA Gerald Droller at JMBELL to Guatemala JMADD JTRAV JMWAVE, ref BELL 3398 (see 104-10228-10069, and its predecessor 104-10228-10303): "AMBUD-1 visit will take place, Ponchay (Jake Esterline) will accompany. ETD (Estimated time of departure) midnight 28 March. ETD MADD late afternoon 30 March. Following will be on board - AMBUD-1, Carlos Hevia, AMOT-2, ESOLEO-1, Ponchay...strong possibility AMBUD-1 to visit JMHARP on conclusion (of) air demonstration." Also see 104-10228-10297: 3/29/61 cable from JMADD (Ponchay/Jake Esterline) to BELL: "Miro visit JMHARP impossible unless pby arr MADD...please advise as Miro insists he visit prisoners." Hal Hendrix article indicates that the MADD training camp is in Guatemala. Also see 104-10227-10305: 3/31/61: Ponchay and Revolutionary Council left MADD for JMFIG (Opa-Locka). "Trip appears successful except for question JMHARP prisoners. WH/C Ponchay and AMBUD-1 have had one conversation (on) this subject and believe compromise can be reached."

124-10306-10020: No Title

"According to CIA agent William McClare (note - his name was withheld until 2022), these 17 individuals were kept in the guard house at the training camp in Guatemala as disciplinary cases of routine Army nature and were not suspected of pro-Castro activities."


5/2/61 memo from WH/4/CI R. Hopkins for Helms to Director, FBI: List of CRC/AMBUD detainees that "were to have participated in the recently attempted invasion of Cuba but, for military disciplinary reasons, were unable to do so." Seventeen of them were brought to the United States from various training bases in Latin American countries.


5/3/61 cable from JMWAVE to BELL: "Owner of building which housed AMOT registered complaint re use of building by persons other than lessee. Owner estimated damages to building at approximately $2500 and wants it reinstated (in) same condition (as) when leased. In order (to) avoid complications of legal suit AMOT-31 who is lessee was instructed to get together with owner and lawyer in order (to) terminate contract (in) view new AMBUD intel service refuses to pay rent and/or order take over contract. In view this attitude by new group they being forced to vacate and move from building by local court order. This action will undoubtedly irritate local AMBUD members, especially AMDIP-1, AMJAG, and AMBANG who have placed their men (in) this new set-up. However, they will probably renew charges that AMOT-2 and AMOT-31 sabotaging AMBUD-1 and explain true reasons why building actually had to be vacated...Building now vacated by new intel service and files remain in building unguarded. Advise whether WAVE should leave files there pending AMBUD decision or take appropriate action and/or have AMOTS retrieve them."


5/4/61 memo recommended taking "appropriate action" to obtain court order to seal files...this will serve to protect against future visits by "former JMHARP detainees to AMOT bldg and protect AMBUD-1 interests". Report of "eviction of AMBUD-1 & AMDIP-1 henchmen" from bldg and suggested "AMOT files" be protected. Also see 104-10236-10324, a 3/20/63 memo by Juan Paula/AMTIKI-1 who relates to Charles Banks how he got the files back from Capt. Ernesto Despaigne, that they will be returned to Sanjenis/AMOT-2, and that these files had been the subject of "bitter discussions and controversies". Note at bottom: "Check ILLEGIBLE Tony S." "Charles Banks" could be an alias for Tony Sforza, but more likely for "Carlos Blanco"/AMOT-2/Jose Joaquin Sanjenis.

124-10306-10020: No Title

"The Miami Herald of May 7, 1961 contains an article captioned 'Kept Prisoner by CIA, Castro Foe Says'. The article was based on statements from Dr. Rodolfo Nodal Tarafa, 27-year-old lawyer who was one of the 17 identified in the CIA letter received with ReBulet. Nodal said he and 16 fellow prisoners were kept in sub-human prison conditions on a remote island off Guantanamo, because they opposed Captain Manuel Artime and other leaders backed by CIA."

Bill Simpich

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