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Cryptonym: ESMERALDITE

Definition:
Unknown identity. According to Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1952-1954: Guatemala, ESMERALDITE was a labor informant affiliated with AFL-sponsored labor movement.
Status:
Unknown
Discussion:
ESMERALDITE and ESMERALDITE-1 were part of the K-Program. Graham L. Page (probably Henry Hecksher) and Boyd I. Rolender worked with ESMERALDITE. A memo on 24 March 1954 stated that ESMERALDITE was witting of U.S. Government interest (point number 6). Another version of the same document added that "His awareness of intelligence interest stems from his relationships with KUBARK (CIA) in WSBURNT (Guatemala) prior to his employment by ORIT in Mexico." https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000923817.pdf In addition, a dispatch on 2 May, 1954, questioned whether "Clower (Joseph G. Sancho) could possibly pose as a fairly low level American organizer?" The same dispatch mentioned that Cadick (William Robertson) would reply on the issue of possibly defecting air force pilots with their planes. The dispatch also noted that "we would like, at this point, to repeat for Page's benefit that the use of napalm, no matter how often urged, is not contemplated." Furthermore, a dispatch on 26 May, 1954, stated that full operational clearance had been granted to ESMERADLITE.
Sources:

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954: Guatemala: Current Section: Abbreviations and Cryptonyms

Page xv: Abbreviations and Cryptonyms..."ESMERALDITE, labor informant affiliated with AFL-sponsored labor movement..."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000917041.pdf

03/19/54: Cable from LINCOLN to Director: Slugline RYBAT PBSUCCESS: "1. Excellent ref report provides precisely leads LINC requires to plan defection in place, labor propaganda channels and financial support channels to WSBURNT (Guatemala) labor leaders. 2. Based on ref, LINC envisages FOLL procedure: A. Graham L. Page (probably Henry Hecksher), on arrival in WSBURNT, will initiate special program to exploit ESMERALDITE and other leads independently of ORIT, for short term polit action and KUGOWN (Psychological and Paramilitary Staff) purposes. B. For this purpose essential Page be provided for three months with a PBPRIME (U.S.) operational asst who has bona fide labor organizing experience with cover. Man should be blunt, tough, practical, impressive personality, self made type and not researcher. Experience with foreign labor movement essential. Man's involvement in clandestine work will be held to minimum and he will not be briefed on PBSUCCESS. He will cultivate spotted anti-red and defectable labor leaders, pass funds allegedly from his union, provide polit and KUGOWN guidance to contact. C. ESMERALDITE-1 will be recruited and run by above PBPRIME labor man. 3. PBPRIME labor man must be cleared for witting contact with KUBARK personnel and be in WSBURNT by 10 April. Prior briefing by Page highly desirable as candidate for assignment, recommend IDEN."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000916981.pdf

03/24/54: Memorandum for the record from Withheld, WH/PP/Labor: Subject: PBSUCCESS Latin American Trade Union Committee in Exile: "The following is submitted for approval after consultation with Boyd O. Rolender, (REDACTION). 1. It is proposed to support the efforts of the ORIT to promote a Latin American Trade Union Committee in Exile. KUBARK (CIA) will engage in this support for purposes of concealing ODYOKE (U.S. Government) interest in covert PBSUCCESS activities and in order to develop closer working relationships with ORIT for PBSUCCESS (REDACTION). 2. To accomplish this operation it is proposed that KUBARK work through ESMERALDITE, (REDACTION) official of ORIT (REDACTION). It has been determined that ESMERALDITE is enthusiastic about proceeding with the operation. In addition ESMERALDITE is well aware of the security aspects of the operation. 3. The core of the operation will be to have WSBURNT (Guatemala) labor exiles participate in the work of the Committee which will be predominantly composed of exiles from the local Latin American type dictatorships. In this manner it is believed that the impression will be created for labor and politicians of the left that WSBURNT is similar to other dictatorships which they vehemently oppose...4. To initiate the operation, the following is proposed for approval: a. That ESMERALDITE be given approximately $2,000 to use to work up organizational and propaganda aspects to lead to the Latin American Trade Union Committee in Exile meeting which will be held shortly after his return to Mexico from Montevideo in June...6. Regarding cover for the operation, ESMERALDITE is witting of ODYOKE interest...7. However, the cover story that ESMERALDITE will use is believed adequate for the purposes of this one-shot limited operation. The story attributed to his source of funds will be that they are coming from a high official in the Mexican Government..."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000916866.pdf

03/29/54: Air dispatch from LINCOLN to Chief, WH: Subject: General - K-Program: Specific - ESMERALDITE-1: "1. This operation was the subject of a discussion between Boyd I. Rolender and Graham L. Page on 28 March 1954. 2. Assuming that full operational clearance can be obtained on ESMERALDITE-1, it is contemplated to put him in direct touch with the K-Program labor representative in Guatemala. Certain security problems are bound to arise in conjunction with effecting a secure initial contact between the labor representative and ESMERALDITE-1, since it is most desirable to preclude any direct or indirect tie-in with KUBARK (CIA). 3. In view of the fact that ESMERALDITE picked and recommended ESMERALDITE-1 as his successor in Guatemala and preparatory steps (such as recognition signs) were taken in order to assure a smooth transfer, we are now faced with a situation in which an introduction by ESMERALDITE-1 is bound to reflect intelligence connotations unless elaborate steps are taken to conceal from both ESMERALDITE and ESMERALDITE-1 that the approach originates with KUBARK...5. We anticipate that any approach to ORIT along those lines, whether made to ESMERALDITE direct or through Luis Alberto Monje, will ultimately result in ESMERALDITE-1 being suggested as an acceptable ESMERALDITE nor ESMERALDITE-1 could possibly infer that this is a KUBARK instigated move and are more likely to surmise a bona fide trade union enterprise...The steps set forth herein are essentially those proposed by Boyd I. Rolender, who believes that the scheme is a workable one. Jerome C. Dunbar."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000916228.pdf

04/21/54: Air dispatch from LINCOLN to COS, Guatemala: Subject: General - K-Program: Specific - Approaches to Guatemalan Labor Leaders (ATTN: Graham L. Page): ..."a...In addition, ESMERALDITE reports (REDACTION) to be venal and to have accepted a salary of 300 quetzales a month from Charnaud MacDonald. Thereafter, again according to ESMERALDITE, Major Martinez bought (REDACTION) for 500 quetzales a month...2. Industrial Labor...b. According to ESMERALDITE, Marco Antonio Villamar, of the PRG, is in bad financial straits, distrusted by the Communists, and a man of high ambitions. He is apparently in conflict with Charnaud MacDonald and wants to wrest PRG control from Charnaud MacDonald. It is possible that, with proper subsidization and with a proper boost to his ego, Villamar could be persuaded to enter the industrial labor field and to build a base of strength there. Likewise, in the PAR, ESMERALDITE recommends that Recinas Sandoval (recently expelled) should be encouraged to organize the industrial workers who follow the PAR into one great bloc and especially to try to organize a federation of public employees independently of the CGTG. ESMERALDITE recommends hinting to Recinas that he might be the future Minister of Labor in Guatemala. There is no need to add anything, in this dispatch, on the case of Carlos Manuel Pellecer. Approaches to these three individuals, given the constant intermingling of labor affairs and party politics in Guatemala, might serve to disrupt the central machinery of the CGTG and to permit the defection of unions from the federation...3...It is hoped that ESMERALDITE-1 will be available to steer Page's efforts in this field..."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000916049.pdf

04/30/54: Cable from Withheld to Director: Slugline RYBAT PBSUCCESS: "1. FYI meeting was held 24 April in RNSHIELD office of GUATS in exile to gain adherence all participants to Calligeris (Carlos Castillo Armas) and plan de Tegucigalpa. Jose Luis Arenas, Jose Calderon Salazar, Mario Lopez Villatoro, Moises Evaristo Orozco, Humberto Solis and Horacio de Cordova attended. Lopez Villatoro and Calderon Salazar stated following: 'We are supported by ODYOKE (U.S. Government); we have full authorization to invade WSBURNT (Guatemala) within one month or less; all those who do not adhere to plan de Tegucigalpa will have no part in new government.' Source LIBETHENITE (REDACTION) Eval B3. In non-solicited report ESMERALDITE confirmed time and purpose of meeting. 2. Orozco and Humberto Solis LIONIZER (Note: Committee for the Liberation of Guatemala, a Guatemalan refugee group in Mexico) members signed plan, were immediately removed from LIONIZER."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000915771.pdf

05/02/54: Air dispatch from LINCOLN to COS, Guatemala (Attn: Page): Subject: General - Operational: Specific: K Program: ..."10. Unfortunately, the recruitment of the 'labor assistant' has hit a snag. The issue was moved on to so high a level that early and easy untanglement appears impossible. In view of this regrettable development, LINCOLN (Note: CIA's Guatemalan covert operations headquarters, a forward base in Florida) wonders whether you could make some progress through ESMERALDITE-1 alone. Could Clower (Joseph G. Sancho) possibly pose as a fairly low level American organizer? Needless to say, this is a suggestion born of nothing but necessity. Another complicating factor in the labor picture is that ESMERALDITE himself will leave Mexico for a trip to Montevideo on 2 May. While it is relatively cold comfort, we suggest that Page (probably Henry Hecksher) follow as closely as possible the events of the 1 May conference of Latin American labor leaders in exile in Mexico City. The support shown to Guatemalan labor exiles at that conference may assist somewhat in the labor defection program...12. Cadick (William Robertson) will reply separately on the matter of possibly defecting the Air Force pilots with their planes. We would like, at this point, to repeat for Page's benefit that the use of napalm, no matter how often urged, is not contemplated. Cadick will likewise reply separately on the matter of intercepting Communist reinforcements from the Esquintla area...Jerome C. Dunbar."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000915702.pdf

05/04/54: Cable from Withheld to Director: Slugline RYBAT PBSUCCESS: "3. ESMERALDITE wrote anti-Arbenz speech for (REDACTION) which latter delivered to (REDACTION). 5,000 copies speech mailed to hemisphere (principally WSBURNT) prior SALEM. Anti-Arbenz poster posted in meeting hall. 4. First issue Ref E bulletin published for SALEM (REDACTION) but ESMERALDITE edited. Contains several anti-Arbenz articles. ESMERALDITE told first issue approved for SALEM but continuing approval dependent result SALEM. Recommend approval upon ESMERALDITE's return. Dispatch follows. 5. ESMERALDITE departed 2300 hours 2 May. ETA Montevideo 4 or 5 May. Have arranged Mexico drop box and recognition signal for Montevideo contact if desired (Ref F). ESMERALDITE's Montevideo address follows (Ref G). 6. Re Ref D. LIBETHENITE (REDACTION) only contact to (REDACTION) in ESMERALDITE's absence but very unsatisfactory for continuing SALEM operations. RNLABILE instructed attend SALEM if possible and report. If RNLABILE briefed by ORIT on SALEM plans, he could make suggestions. 7. Re Ref D. ESMERALDITE believed (REDACTION) double agent for WSBURNT (Guatemala) Government." - - - Page 2 of a memorandum from C/PP on 4 June 1954 stated that ESMERADLITE accused Ruben Villatoro of being a double agent: https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000922742.pdf Page 1 stated that ORIT stood for "Committee of non-communist Latin American Unions - with headquarters in Mexico."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000923273.pdf

05/26/54: Dispatch from LINCOLN to COS, Withheld: Subject: General - Operational: Specific: ESMERALDITE: "Headquarters has informed us on 17 May 1954 that full operational clearance has been granted to ESMERALDITE. Jerome C. Dunbar."

Contributors:
Gavin McDonald

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