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Cryptonym: CABEZONE

Definition:
The Defector Reception Center (DRC) in Frankfurt, Germany that was employed to conduct secret interrogations, debriefings, and a variety of operations with defectors, double agents, and other unfortunates who had fallen into US hands. Located within Camp King.
Status:
Documented
Discussion:
George McManus was the first director of CABEZONE. About 400 positive intelligence reports were obtained, with the defectors resettled into US, Canada, Brazil, France and Sweden. See CIA AND NAZI WAR CRIM. AND COL. CHAP. 11-21, DRAFT WORKING PAPER_0002.pdf - pages 20-21. According to Joseph Trento in Prelude to Terror: Edwin P. Wilson and the Legacy of America's Private Intelligence Network, on page 34 in regards to Ted Shackley and Tom Clines: "The two had first met in the 1950s, when Clines was working out of Frankfurt in the CIA's Technical Services Division and Shackley was a top case officer in Berlin (7)." Page 364: (7) "From an FBI interview with Theodore George Shackley, September 7, 1983."
Sources:

Victor Marchetti, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, p. 185

Escapees from the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe are handled by the CIA's defector reception center at Camp King near Frankfurt, West Germany.

https://www.archives.gov/files/iwg/declassified-records/rg-263-cia-records/second-release-lexicon.pdf

CIA document: National Archives Research Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Disclosure Acts: Page 16: "Term: CABEZONE. Definition: Defector Reception Center (DRC) in Frankfurt, Germany..."

David Talbot, The Devil's Chessboard, p. 291

"It was in secret overseas detention centers like Camp King where the CIA found many of the subjects for its ARTICHOKE interrogations: Defectors, double agents, and other unfortunates from the East who had fallen into US hands. Some of the captives had been delivered to the CIA by the Gehlen Organization, which for a time operated out of Camp King until relocating to Pullach. During the war, Camp King had been a Nazi interrogation center for captured US and British fliers. Afterward, the US military turned the cap into a stockade for notorious Nazi POWs like the propagandist "Axis Sally" and the swashbuckling commando Otto Skorzeny. But by 1948, the camp was operating as an extreme interrogation center for Soviet prisoners, a program publicly administered by an unscrupulous alliance of CIA scientists and ex-Nazi doctors...At Camp King, (they) subjected vicitims to dangerous combinations of drugs, including Benzedrine, Pentothal-Natrium, LSD and mescaline - under a research protocol that stipulated, "Disposal of the body is not a problem." More than 1600 of the Nazi scientists recruited for US research projects like this would be comfortably resettled with the ir families in America under a CIA program known as Operation Paperclip."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/REIF%2C%20JOSEF_0002.pdf

06/16/55: Cable from Frankfurt to Director: Slugline CABEZONE/DIZTAG/TECHS: "14 Jun 55 CABEZONE accepted from ODIBEX (U.S. Army), DS 636, Josef Reif, former Czechoslovak citizen, born 5 July 1894 in Risuty, district Bilina CSR. Subject is graduate architect and was last employed as foreman with United Steel Works, national enterprise, Kladno, CSR. Defected West Berlin 13 May 55. Name traces requested."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP83-00036R000700040005-5.pdf

02/09/56: Dispatch from COS, Germany to Chief, EE: Subject: CABEZONE/Administrative Housing: The document reviews housing aspects of Project CABEZONE and the "customer evaluations" of CABEZONE's defector intelligence "product".

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/HARVARD%20DEVELOPMENT%20AND%20PLANS%20%20%20VOL.%201_0028.pdf

07/06/60: Dispatch from COS, Germany to Chief, EE: Subject: CABEZONE/HARVARD Project Approval for FY 1960 and FY 1961: Dispatch reviews some of the partial funding amounts and the obligations accrued for Projects CABEZONE and HARVARD.

104-10181-10073: UNABLE THUS FAR FIND ANY EVIDENCE SLOBODA HAD ANY CONTACT KUBARKERS

09/03/60: Cable from Frankfurt to Director: Slugline CART PBRAMPART CABEZONE: REF DIR 48082 (OUT 64181)*: "1. Unable thus far find any evidence (Vladimir) Sloboda had any contact KUBARKers (CIA). 2. Capt Jack Manning ODIBEX (U.S. Army) rep SES informed Lyack 2 September he knew Sloboda well as member his section 525 MI Group Fort Meade in 1958. Says S. had access then to considerable personality info ODIBEX intel. S. visited Manning SES offices late last winter to borrow fifty dollars which later repaid. Visit lasted 20 minutes during which safes locked and no classified material exposed. Manning says S. knows generally purpose of CABEZONE and SES out not Manning's functions. According CABEZONE records this only visit S. to CABEZONE. 3. No KUBARKers in CABEZONE had dealings any nature with S. One KUBARKer thought he had heard member ODIBEX detachment CABEZONE say just after defection that S. had occasionally assisted them in some way but unable now identify speaker or otherwise verify this statement. Assume such impression could have been gained from S. visit to Manning para 2 above. 4. Alias Loring says he known to S. in capacity of Uphill liaison Camp King but not as Uphill liaison CABEZONE. 5. MKTOPAZ (CIA Technical Services Division) liaison to Camp King had no dealings with S. 6. Will report any additional items but tentatively conclude S. had no intimate knowledge KUBARK. 7. Request identity army type and full report all his statements to assist investigation here. C/S Comment: *HQs requested estimate SUBJ's knowledge KUBARK activities and personnel."

https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/HARVARD%20DEVELOPMENT%20AND%20PLANS%20%20%20VOL.%201_0032.pdf

04/19/61: Dispatch from COS, Germany to Chief, EE: Subject: CABEZONE, HARVARD Estimates for FY 62 Project Renewals: "Thank you for your dispatch EGOS-7625 of 6 April 1961. It was interesting to see that both the station and headquarters were thinking of Project HARVARD and CABEZONE renewals simultaneously. You should have received our teletape Ref B about the same time we received your dispatch. We have carefully reviewed EGOS-7625 and believe that EGOT-11072 provided the information you requested."

104-10169-10139: HANDLING AT GERMAN STATION 16 & 17 DECEMBER OF SOVIET DEFECTOR FROM RUSSIAN EMBASSY AT HELSINKI.

12/18/61: Memorandum for the record from Roger I. McKee, regarding the defection of Anatoly Golitsyn/AELADLE (referenced on page 6 of this document): ..."2. At approximately 0730 hours Saturday, 16 December, Arnold J. Lyack (Chief, CABEZONE) contacted me at my house and asked me to proceed immediately to the residence of Joel D. Bentham (Chief of Station). Upon arrival of Bentham's residence, Bentham and Lyack briefed me on the (REDACTION) cable which announced (REDACTION) intent to endeavor to fly subject and family 'black' from (REDACTION) to Frankfurt aboard the Air Attaché aircraft. Cable also requested Frankfurt to have an aircraft available to receive immediately subject and family and take off forthwith to the United States. Lyack also mentioned an IN cable from DIR which requested (REDACTION) to move family soonest to CABEZONE in Frankfurt for establishment of bona fides..."

104-10169-10139: HANDLING AT GERMAN STATION 16 & 17 DECEMBER OF SOVIET DEFECTOR FROM RUSSIAN EMBASSY AT HELSINKI.

01/31/62: Dispatch from COS, Germany to Chief, EE (Attn: Matthew L. Carson): Info: Chief, SR (Attn: Sherman O. Cusick); Chief, WE (Attn: Leonard P. Sackett): Subject: Administrative Handling of a Soviet Defector: ..."3. The handling of defectors obviously is not a new responsibility to the German Station. The CABEZONE facility which exists primarily for the receipt, establishment of bona fides, debriefing, and resettlement of defectors has existed here for the last decade. Nor is the movement by black evacuation of operational personnel a unique task for us to perform. We have accomplished this many times by use of our own integrated ODUNIT (U.S. Air Force) facility and also by the furnishing of alias documentation to the person of interest and accomplishing the transport via scheduled NATO flights..."

104-10182-10052: CIA FILE ON WIROGUE.

05/22/62: Cable from Frankfurt to Director: Slugline RYBAT WIROGUE CABEZONE: "1. WIROGUE (David Tzitzichvili) arrived FRAN 1400 22 Jan. Met by Stephan R. Lacklen who posed as admin officer interested in determining reason for travel Germany. W said he here on official business Congolese Govt and had documentation to prove it. W now in blown CABEZONE safe house. 2. Lacklen able acquire passport and all other documentation, except birth certificate and Austrian driver's license, under pretext need photograph. Rapport excellent but anticipate serious problem when W told we will not return docs. 3. W interested remain in clandestine work but stated unwillingness remain Germany. Absolutely to commitments made to W. Air ticket (in our possession) is round-trip LEOP-FRAN-LEOP. Intends return LEOP after completion of mission. 4. Details re above info follows. C/S Comment: *Action unit determined as though indicator ZIBET used. **HQs suggested WIROGUE be informed by LEOP of investigation risk."

Richard H. Cummings, Cold War Frequencies, pp. 63 - https://books.google.com/books?id=iPclEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA63&lpg=PA63&dq=CIA+and+Defectors+from+USSR:+Project+CAMANTILLA:+The+American+Friends+of+Russian+Freedom+AFRF&source=bl&ots=8KqPBuMeaU&sig=ACfU3U0tKndTmUj85Ag0B-yWc2N1Jwdo9g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjot8L847TxAhWNvp4KHQhbAXQQ6AEwBXoECAkQAw#v=onepage&q=CIA%20and%20Defectors%20from%20USSR%3A%20Project%20CAMANTILLA%3A%20The%20American%20Friends%20of%20Russian%20Freedom%20AFRF&f=false

"Actual debriefing and interrogation of defectors and potential defectors, including use of the lie detector, was the responsibility of CABEZONE officers. Afterwards, if approved by CABEZONE, they would be turned over to HARVARD for relocation and resettlement, with assistance from AFRF." HARVARD and CAMANTILLA were merged into CABEZONE in fiscal year 1964.

See Also:
Contributors:
Carmine Savastano • Gavin McDonald • Bill Simpich

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