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Cryptonym: ARTICHOKE

The study and/or use of "special" interrogation methods and techniques. These "special" interrogation methods have been known to include the use of drugs and hypnosis, and "total isolation", a form of psychological harassment.

Memorandum for the Record, Project ARTICHOKE. 1/31/75.

Definition given as provided above. Summary of project history. In 1952, responsibility passed from OSI to Office of Security. Morse Allen was the focal point for many years. ARTICHOKE operations were approved at least as late as 1960. See nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB54/st02.pdf

104-10418-10242: Newspaper Article - Why Rockefeller Tried to Cover Up the CIA Probe

Tad Szulc, New York magazine, September 1977: "...there was Rockefeller's tenure as undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare in 1953 and 1954. This was when the CIA set in motion its complex secret programs...code-named "Artichoke" and "MK-Ultra" and they involved secretly funded LSD research in scores of American hospitals, universities, and special foundations. A certain amount of this money was funded through HEW..."

Jeffrey Kaye and H.P. Albarelli, Jr., Cries From the Past: Torture's Ugly Echoes. Truthout, 2010. http://truth-out.org/archive/component/k2/item/89725:cries-from-the-past-tortures-ugly-echoes

"The code name 'ARTICHOKE' was selected with sardonic humor from the street appendage given to New York City gangster Ciro Terranova, who was referred to as 'the Artichoke King'...(the project was) overseen by the Agency's Security Research Staff, headed by Paul F. Gaynor, a former Army Brigadier General, who had extensive experience in wartime interrogations...(a) 1954 Artichoke conference, attended by Frank Olson's Fort Detrich superior, Col. Vincent Ruwet (revealed)... the ultimate goal of the group which is the running of selected foreign nationals back into Europe for specific work for this Agency...numerous Artichoke operational reports and records (were) filed by both the CIA and army from 1954 through to at least 1970.

Bill Simpich

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