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Cryptonym: ARTICHOKE

Definition:
The study and/or use of "special" interrogation methods and techniques. These "special" interrogation methods have been known to include the use of drugs and hypnosis, and "total isolation", a form of psychological harassment.
Status:
Documented
Sources:

Memorandum for the Record, Project ARTICHOKE. 1/31/75.

Definition given as provided above. Summary of project history. In 1952, responsibility passed from OSI to Office of Security. Morse Allen was the focal point for many years. ARTICHOKE operations were approved at least as late as 1960. See nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB54/st02.pdf

104-10418-10242: Newspaper Article - Why Rockefeller Tried to Cover Up the CIA Probe

Tad Szulc, New York magazine, September 1977: "...there was Rockefeller's tenure as undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare in 1953 and 1954. This was when the CIA set in motion its complex secret programs...code-named "Artichoke" and "MK-Ultra" and they involved secretly funded LSD research in scores of American hospitals, universities, and special foundations. A certain amount of this money was funded through HEW..."

Jeffrey Kaye and H.P. Albarelli, Jr., Cries From the Past: Torture's Ugly Echoes. Truthout, 2010. http://truth-out.org/archive/component/k2/item/89725:cries-from-the-past-tortures-ugly-echoes

"The code name 'ARTICHOKE' was selected with sardonic humor from the street appendage given to New York City gangster Ciro Terranova, who was referred to as 'the Artichoke King'...(the project was) overseen by the Agency's Security Research Staff, headed by Paul F. Gaynor, a former Army Brigadier General, who had extensive experience in wartime interrogations...(a) 1954 Artichoke conference, attended by Frank Olson's Fort Detrich superior, Col. Vincent Ruwet (revealed)... the ultimate goal of the group which is the running of selected foreign nationals back into Europe for specific work for this Agency...numerous Artichoke operational reports and records (were) filed by both the CIA and army from 1954 through to at least 1970.

104-10404-10094: BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE SOFT FILE REVIEW - "KELLY" - DIMITROV, D. A

10/7/77 memo from A. R. Cinquegrana, Office of General Counsel to Anthony A. Lapham: "D.A. Dimitrov, designated 'Kelly', is a Bulgarian expatriate who appears to have been imprisoned in Greece sometime in 1950 and 1951 on false pretenses because the Agency feared he would accept an offer from French intelligence. After six months in custody, he was flown to Panama where he was misrepresented as a psychopath and confined in a U.S. military hospital for several months...he was then removed from the hospital and held by the Agency at Fort Clayton in Panama for three years. He was then returned to Greece and ultimately allowed to enter the US as a refugee. It appears from the attached copy of a 7 February 1952 memorandum that 'the Artichoke approach', i.e. the use of drugs to reverse his hostility towards the US and US intelligence agencies, was never consummated."

104-10435-10071: [RESTRICTED]

"In April 1951 it came to OPC's attention that (Dico Dimitrov) intended to sell his knowledge of CIA's activities to the French Intelligence Service. This fact was used as the primary reason for his removal from active participation in Bulgarian operations. Because of operational security considerations...it was decided that he should be transferred to a CIA holding facility in Fort Clayton, Panama...arriving on 4 September 1951. He remained there until January 1954. A CIA case officer was dispatched from headquarters in May 1953 to Fort Clayton where he interrogated (Dimitrov). It was determined at that time that whatever operational knowledge (Dimitrov) had of CIA, its methods, personnel and operations was obsolete...(at page 105), 3/27/53: "They reviewed his "hard-core" case in 1953 and the recommendation was to continue confinement for some time." (at page 97), 5/26/53: "Upon arrival at DTROBALO (Fort Clayton) I discussed the case with (Dimitrov's) case officer, Philip Toomey...(same memo, page 103): "(Dimitrov's) knowledge of current operations is so minute that the security risks to our current operations would be very little, if any, if he were resettled. Therefore, my recommendation is to process him for resettlement."

1993.08.13.07:06:36:150014: BLUE MEMORANDUM FOR: RE DUTCH JOURNALIST ALTMANS WHO APPEARED ON GOOD

10/11/77 memo from SDB (Scott D. Breckenridge) to JHW: "On 8 Sept a Dutch journalist (Willem Oltmens) appeared on Good Morning America, at which time he claimed to have a source who can expose the conspiracy behind the JFK murder. He says the man is General Donald Donaldson, originally Deko Demetrov (note: aka Dico Dimitrov, Dimitri Dimitrov). CI Staff wrote the FBI asking for verification that Donaldson is Dimitrov (of whom we know quite a bit)...now we have to ascertain to what extent Dimitrov was, in fact, given the ARTICHOKE treatment. In any event, the past drug thing seems pretty old, unless Dimitrov was injured in some way (which we don't yet know), and the assassination lead is a bit slim at the moment...It seems to me that we should also view this person's theory on the JFK assassination - just so we will be able to rebut it with assassination committee, if possible."

Contributors:
Bill Simpich

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