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Cryptonym: AMSCROLL

Definition:
UR, also known as Unidad Revolucionaria. Its organizing membership was described as impatient former members of the MRR, well-educated and with the skills needed to overthrow a government.
Status:
Documented
Discussion:
3/11/61 UR reported that Castro was trying to start a premature uprising. Robert Mattes the British spy bought into it: 104-10226-10273 https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=47402&relPageId=2&search=%22PLANT%22 3/13/61 FORDC was planning to sabotage electrical power plants, with HQ approval: https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=38533#relPageId=2&tab=page 104-10226-10225: Dispatch: Amscroll Progress Report, October 1963 The progress report describes Unidad as the house organ for AMSCROLL. 104-10226-10110: Dispatch, Unidad Revolucionaria: Development as Propaganda Mechanism and Cover for Unilateral Operations 12/15/62 Unidad Newspaper, p. 2 includes news about John Martino's release from Cuban prison: 104-10235-10362 1/16/63 dispatch from Chief of JMWAVE to Chief, Task Force W: In June 1962, Shackley called together several case officers on supporting the UR in exile. “Compartmented Intelligence and paramilitary operations through assets in and on the periphery of the UR are reported separately through AMBLEAK-1, AMSUM-1 and 2, AMSTASH-1, AMTAUP-1, AMLAME-1, Luis Pino, Couto and AMDENIM-1.” 104-10226-10225: DISPATCH: AMSCROLL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1963 UR started being referred to as AMSCROLL during 1963, probably because of their bent towards written propaganda. 104-10520-10090: CABLE: WAVE BELIEVES THAT WITH MODEST AMOUNT NEGOTIATION UNIDAD REVOLUCIONARIA 4/5/61 memo from WAVE to BELL: "UR strength (26 separate organizations) is primarily within Cuba rather than in exile and their point of view seems to represent interest of well educated and well intentioned non-political types to get on with the job of getting rid of Castro." This poster lists the heroes of UR in 1963, Rafael Diaz Hanscom and more: https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=47523&relPageId=10&search=%22rafael_diaz%20hanscom%22
Sources:

Jesus Arboleya, The Cuban Counterrevolution (Ohio University, 2000), p. 70

"(Around 1959) a group of ex-Autentico persons living outside Cuba organized Unidad Revolucionaria (UR), led by the powerful landowner Alberto Fernandez, who had settled in the United States in 1959. The UR, using a boat owned by Fernandez, specialized in the infiltration and exfiltration of CIA agents and the personnel of the different organizations, placing it in the center of conspiratorial activity and in a privileged position of trust vis-a-vis the North American espionage services. In Cuba it would later be headed by Rafael Diaz Hanscom, who had been head of intelligence of MRR until he gravitated away from that organization and joined the UR, receiving in the process CIA support and training. Humberto Sori Marin...occupied the position of military chief...Sori told (CIA agent Alfredo Izaguirre) that he had made contact with Guantanamo Naval Base and that they would back him...According to (Fabian) Escalante, Sori also met with Howard Hunt and from that meeting emerged the idea of creating the (Frente de Unidad Revolucionaria). With that purpose in mind, in March 1961 one of the agency's paramilitary groups carried Sori, Diaz Hanscom, and Manuel Puig back to Cuban shores. On March 18, Cuban authorities arrested Sori, Diaz Hanscom, Gonzalez Corso (AMRUNG-1) and the bulk of the UR leadership."

Larry Hancock, Someone Would Have Talked (Lancer, 2010), Appendix D

"A list of the armed exiles organizations' groups potentially most dangerous to Fidel Castro in the early 1960's would likely begin with Unidad Revolucionario/UR, formed within Cuba in 1960 and composed of participants from 27 independent groups including Movimento Liberacion, MRD, MRR, Rescate, and 30 November...(UR leader Alberto Fernandez Echevarria, AMDENIM-1 worked with Kleberg of King Ranch who) helped Fernandez to negotiate and fund the purchase of an ex-Navy sub chaser for penetration and supply missions into Cuba. The ship was located in New Orleans...Tejana missions, personally led by Fernandez, commenced infiltration missions in March 1961...the Tejana's crew included two men whose names would become legendary in independent exile military operations, Tony Cuesta (AMDENIM-14) and Eduardo ("Eddie Bayo") Perez Gonzalez (AMDENIM-11). Cuesta and Perez had earlier joined a very special Unidad military group called Los Halcones Negros (the Black Falcons) whose chief was former Rebel Army Captain Jose Lopez (pseudonym 'Oswaldo') and which also included Luis Posada Carriles (AMCLEVE-15)." Also see 4/19/63, dispatch from Chief of Station, JMWAVE to Chief, Special Affairs Staff, Attachment A: "...The organizing membership (of UR) consisted mainly of former members of the MRR, impatient over inactivity and disillusioned by the inability of its National Coordinator to obtain effective support...during 1960. Behind the planning for the UR based on the unification theory was Rafael DIAZ Hanscomb (aka RAFAEL), MRR National Coordinator for intelligence." https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=52123&relPageId=4

1994.06.02.15:07:15:780005: Reel 61, Folder B - UNIDAD REVOLUTIONARIA.

12/14/60: "The case officer of Havana Station was contacted on 14 December 1960 by Jose Alvarez Lopez, Carlos Manuel Borron Carreras, and Ralph DIAZ Hanscom to discuss plans being made in Havana to form a new coordinated movement to be known as Unidad Revolucionaria (UR). This movement was to be formed from all individual anti-Castro organizations then existing in Cuba...Ralph DIAZ Hanscom...was an MRR (Movimiento Recuperacion Revolucionaria) leader in Oriente Province. He advised the Station that he was flying to Miami on 25 December to contact (Manolo) Ray/AMBANG-1, Martin Elena, Sanchez Arango/AMEER-1, Nino Diaz/AMNORM-1 and Varona/AMDIP-1 to attempt...an agreement from the FRD for coordination. WH/4/PA expressed interest in the new UR, and asked Miami to forward evaluation/results of (Diaz's) talks. While in Miami, Alberto Fernandez Echevarria/AMDENIM-1 arranged to have Diaz Hanscom talk to Mr. Howard Hunt and to REDACTED..." Also and 104-10226-10021. 104-10226-10285: Complete list of groups/war names/leaders: Movimiento Liberaction - Justo - Andres Zayas; Movimiento Salvar a Cuba - Cesar - Octavio Barroso; Agrupacion Revolucionaria Independiente - Ramon - Ramon Font; Movimiento de Accion Revolucionaria - Dr. Jorge - Dr. Mario Seiglie; Marina Revolucionaria Democratica - Abel - Julio Calimirio Vasquez; Union Nacional Democratica - Marcelino Toro - Ing. Cosme de la Torriente; Movimiento Masonico Anti-Comunista - Dr. Valdez Gonzalez; Movimiento Democratico de Liberacion - Adelberto - Gerardo; Juventud Anti-Comunista de America (JACA) - Raul - Antonio Fernandez; Accion Radical Anti-Comunista - Pepe - Emilio Cosculluela; Legio Democratica Constitucional - Luis - Dr. Enrique Castellano; 30 de Noviembre - Alejandro - Raul Montes de Oca; Accion Cuba - Demetrio - M. A. Medina; Organizacion Insurrectional Democratica (CID) - Ludovico - Luis Busquets; F.E.U. - Raul - Mario de Armas; BOAC - Jibarito - Dr. Victor Vega; MRR - Julian, Leon; Accion 62 - Orlando; FARI"

104-10226-10274: DEBRIEFING OF HUMBERTO SORI MARIN

3/7/61 cable from JMWAVE to BELL: "WAVE debriefing Humberto Sori Marin on 2 March revealed (that) he military emissary for Unidad Revolucionario organization inside Cuba and that he here to obtain needed arms support for starting uprising throughout island. He said he hopes to go back to Cuba ASAP and that, with required arms support, his group able (to) initiate operations one or two weeks after his return...Stated main group strength in Oriente province, where eight to fifteen organized combat groups are located...WAVE attempting bring together AMNORM-1 (Nino Diaz), Tova, Sori Marin and Francisco Bilbao (AMCRAG-1) in order plan open new front Oriente."

104-10226-10257: CABLE RE UNIDAD REVOLUCIONARIA SUPPORT MIRO AND REVOLUCIONARY COUNCIL

4/5/61 cable from WAVE to BELL: "...UR strength (26 separate organizations) is primarily inside Cuba rather than in exile and their point of view seems to represent interest of well-educated and well intentioned non-political types to get on with the job of getting rid of Castro...their failure to toot their own horn is most un-Cuban and typical of their approach to problem. In spite of this underplaying they have been able (to) attract men like (Humberto) Sori Marin and have been WAVE's main channel to Navy conspiracy. In Miami area they have stayed out of local politics and have been most cooperative with WAVE...In recent weeks they have provided approximately 163 recruits for Nino Diaz and Brigade...UR Miami reps now wish (to) mount intensive propaganda campaign aimed at people in Cuba to back up approaching military phase and are seeking WAVE support and offering full cooperation...WAVE will urge local reps seek support of UR inside Cuba for revolutionary council...Lamaiux approves and WAVE will proceed unless HQS objects before 1800 hours 6 April."

Nestor Carbonell, Why Cuba Matters (2020): https://www.google.com/books/edition/Why_Cuba_Matters/c4fiDwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=varona

"Among those arrested (on 3/19/61) was Manuel (Nongo) Puig, a tall, 36 year old congenial former Olympic rower and hardworking distributor of wines and spirits. He was married to my cousin Ofelia, a convent-educated statuesque brunette with striking blue eyes...he narrowly escaped arrest in 1960 after his brother Rino was caught conspiring, and fled to the United States. The CIA provided military training in Guatemala and Panama and arranged to infiltrate Nongo into Cuba in March 1961. His shipmate on the way back was Humberto Sori Marin, a former Cuban 'comandante' and minister of agriculture, who had emerged as the pivotal leader of the resistance movement...(Sori Marin and Puig's) mission was to join forces with the other underground chiefs and organize an uprising tht would coincide with the invasion. Owing to the president's order not to inform them of the military plans and the timeline for the landings, they were unaware that the invasion would soon be launched and decided to hold an ultrasecret coordination meeting on March 19...all of the five conspirators safely reached the meeting place (where they were captured and executed.)

104-10233-10330: UR AND ECONOMIC GROUP PARTICIPATION IN CRC

2/7/62 from Unknown (possibly AMOT-11) to "Al, Bob, Rocky and Phil". Al is probably Al Rodriguez/Earl Williamson. Rocky is probably Rocky Farnsworth: "In line with my conversation with Rocky, I asked Dr. Miro at our meeting today whether the UR had given him any further indications of joining the CRC...He informed me that personally he believes that Alberto Echeverria, the coordinator of the UR, wishes to join the CRC...the UR considers itself a group that unites other groups, and therefore it would like to see several of the present groups in the CRC be eliminated if the UR were brought into the CRC...(Dr. Miro) agreed that it all appears to be a matter of political jockeying."

1994.06.02.15:09:37400005: Reel 61 - Folder D: Unitas Revolucionaria

Possible counterrevolutionary uprisings in Cuba at the end of August. Date distr. 28 August 1962. The Unidad Revolucionaria (UR) has sent a representative to brief the UR in exile regarding a plan for an uprising to take place in Cuba in August. 104-10226-10225: UR started being referred to as AMSCROLL during 1963, probably because of their bent towards written propaganda.

104-10231-10315: ROUTING AND RECORD SHEET

12/1/62 memo from Chip to Phil/PW and Bill, C/PW (Phil is probably Phil Toomey/William Kent) and Bill, C/PW is, again, Bill Kent), source: AMLAME-1: "Re: Revolutionary Unity. Dr. Miro Cardona sent from Mr. Juan Medina, Mr. Dulzaides and Pepe de la Torriente to advise them that the CIA was exerting pressure again in order that the Unity (note: Unidad) group under the leadership of Mr. Rodriguez Espada be allowed to join the Revolutionary Council (note: CRC/AMBUD)...he summoned a meeting of the two sectors with the Moderator representing the (CRC). The meeting took place, participating Mario Seiglie (AMWORD-3) and Fernandez Cavada (AMBLEAK-1) (on) behalf of Rodriguez Espada and for the opposing group Dulzaides and Armas, the Moderator being Colonel Monteagudo who had appointed by Dr. Miro Cardona. The results were negative because the meeting ended in a free for all fist fight and no conclusions were reached. The Flagler Street group (Medina and others) would like to have Torriente substituted on account of his inactivity for they are determined that their movement become stronger and more active; with this aim in mind they have established a delegation in Puerto Rico; composed of former members of Alpha-66 who defected from Veciana; but they also have the purpose of re-establishing the contacts that they had in Cuba and which they allege have been kidnapped by Mr. Rodriguez Espada, Salvador Garcia, and others. Sincerely, Garcia."

104-10226-10110: Dispatch, Unidad Revolucionaria: Development as Propaganda Mechanism and Cover for Unilateral Operations

1/16/63 dispatch from Chief of JMWAVE to Chief, Task Force W: In June 1962, Shackley called together several case officers on supporting the UR in exile. “Compartmented Intelligence and paramilitary operations through assets in and on the periphery of the UR are reported separately through AMBLEAK-1, AMSUM-1 and 2, AMSTASH-1, AMTAUP-1, AMLAME-1, Luis Pino, Couto and AMDENIM-1.”

HSCA Report, Volume X Current Section: XI. Junta del Gobierno de Cuba en el Exilio

Dr. Paulino Sierra Martinez led a new effort to bring together Cubans from a variety of organizations in 1963 with the JGCE. He was advanced 30 million for this effort, far more than anyone else ever had to work with. The Juan Medina Vega faction of UR joined in this effort. Pepin Bosch was a participant, the president of Bacardi Rum. His financial backers were rumored to include gambling interests, gangsters, and wealthy Texans. He worked with Jerry Hemming pals like Steve Wilson and Dannis Lynn Harber. He gave money to arms dealer Rich Lauchli for guns in August. His operation started up in March 1963 and was defunct by Jan. 1964, which got a lot of attention.

104-10048-10414: REPORT OF A LARGE SCALE OPERATION AGAINST CUBA BY EXILE GROUPS

CIA cable, 3/25/63: "A large strike against targets in Cuba, to take place during the week of 25 March, is being planned by a group of anti-Castro organizations in exile. Felipe Vidal Santiago is in charge of the operation which will involve elements of the Unidad Revolucionario (Revolutionary Unity), MDC faction which is led by Laureano Batista (AMPALM-2), and the group headed by Comandante Emilio Duque; Duque has just arrived in Miami from Puerto Rico. Finances have been arranged by Julio Lobo (AMEMBER-1) and Orlando Bosch Avila (AMDITTO-23)...the actual purpose of the strike is to put ashore in Cuba two landing forces, one under Duque in the Escambray area and the other in Oriente." See 104-10226-10225: The 10/63 progress report describes Unidad as the house organ for AMSCROLL. See 104-10169-10035: 11/7/63 memo from Chief, JMWAVE to Chief, San Juan: AMSCROLL is subsidized by a group of Latin Americans including SKEWER-1.

Contributors:
Bill Simpich

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