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Kennedy Domestic Policy


JFK at press conference, 1 Feb 1961.

Kennedy's "New Frontier" is remembered today more for its foreign policy successes and blunders - the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs, Vietnam - than for domestic policy. JFK was president at the height of the Cold War, and foreign policy initiatives and crisis often dominated the agenda.

But President Kennedy was active on the home front as well. His brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, unleashed an unprecedented war on organized crime, one foreshadowed by the brothers' days together on the McClelland Committee. This aggressive federal effort against Carlos Marcello, Sam Giancana, Jimmy Hoffa and many others had its own political costs, and was particularly sensitive given the Democratic party's relationship with organized labor.

Another hot-button area was civil rights; here Kennedy was less than fully engaged for most of his presidency, enforcing civil rights laws while attempting without success to apply the brakes to the country's looming crisis. Kennedy needed Democratic southern Senators on his side, and saw too clearly the political costs of pushing too hard on civil rights. His successor, Lyndon Johnson, would succeed in doing the right thing, enacting the Civil Rights Act introduced by Kennedy in the summer of 1963, and simultaneously triggering the great realignment where the "solid South" thereafter moved as a bloc from the Democrats to the Republicans.

Beyond these two great issues of the day, JFK created the Peace Corps, initiated the "space race" which put a man on the moon in 1969, advocated on mental health issues, and worked with Congress on affordable housing, equal pay for women, and a host of other agendas.

In the economic arena, JFK is remembered for his tax cuts, particularly by Republicans eager to claim their share of his memory. Often forgotten is the uneasy relationship he had with big business. The most dramatic moment came in April 1962, when Kennedy took on Big Steel, forcing rollback of price increases which he declared were not "in the public interest."

RESOURCES:

Essays


JFK & Steel, Bush & Oil, by Rex Bradford.

The Posthumous Assassination of JFK: Judith Exner, Mary Meyer, and Other Daggers, by James DiEugenio.

The Posthumous Assassination of JFK Part II: Sy Hersh and the Monroe/JFK Papers: The History of a Thirty-Year Hoax, by James DiEugenio.

St. John the Liberal?, by Eric Paddon.


Documents

At Home: A Troubled Land. JFK's domestic program overview in the HSCA Final Report.

 
Other Links


New Frontier on wikipedia.

Peace Corps at JFK Library and Museum website.

Space Program at JFK Library and Museum website.

Selected JFK Speeches & Statements:
  • Statement Upon Signing Order Establishing the Peace Corps, 1 Mar 1961.
  • Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs, 25 May 1961.
  • Statement on the Steel Crisis, 11 Apr 1962.
  • Address Before the United States Chamber of Commerce on its 50th Anniversary, 30 Apr 1962.
  • Commencement Address at Yale University, 11 Jun 1962.
  • Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights, 11 Jun 1963.

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Books of Interest

    A Thousand Days
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
Fawcett Crest, 1965
 
    Bobby and J. Edgar
Burton Hersh
Carroll & Graf, 2007
 
    The Steel Crisis
Roy Hoopes
John Day, 1963
 
    Kennedy
Theodore Sorenson
Harper and Row, 1965
 
    Kennedy and the Press
Harold Chase and Allen Lerman
Thomas Y. Cromwell Co., 1965
 
    Battling Wall Street
Donald Gibson
Sheridan Square Press, 1994
 
    Parting the Waters: America in the King Years
Taylor Branch
Simon and Schuster, 1988
 
    The Dark Side of Camelot
Seymour Hersh
Little, Brown & Co., 1997
 
    The Hoffa Wars
Dan E. Moldea
Paddington Press, 1978

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